Traditional Polish Christmas Recipes

The Essential Polish Christmas Cookbook: Fish, Twelve Dishes and More: Iconic Recipes for a Polish Wigilia Supper

The festive season in Poland is marked by an array of time-honoured dishes that grace the Christmas table—each recipe steeped in tradition and carrying a piece of cultural heritage. As you explore Polish Christmas cuisine, you’ll discover meals that combine simple, earthy ingredients with rich flavours, creating a culinary mosaic that warms the chill of a Polish winter night.

The centrepiece of this feast is the Christmas Eve dinner, known as Wigilia, where the focus is on harmony with nature, reflecting the meatless and fasting traditions of the season.

Traditional Polish Christmas Recipes

Your exploration of traditional Polish Christmas recipes introduces you to a range of dishes, from the beetroot borscht (Barszcz Czerwony) to the comforting mushroom and pierogi—dumplings that are a staple at any Polish celebration.

Fish, particularly carp and herring, features prominently in dishes such as Smazony Karp and Śledź pod Pierzynką, a layered herring salad. These recipes are more than just food; they are a narrative of Poland’s culinary traditions, woven seamlessly into the fabric of Christmas.

With an understanding of the customs and the symbolic significance of the dishes served during Wigilia, you can bring the spirit of a Polish Christmas into your own kitchen.

Whether it’s trying your hand at making the delicate poppy seed rolls known as Makowiec or indulging in the sweet spice of Pierniki—Polish gingerbread—you’ll be experiencing a festive tradition that’s been cherished for generations.

Traditional Polish Makowiec desert poppy seeds

The Significance of Wigilia: A Polish Christmas Eve

Your observance of Wigilia on Christmas Eve in Poland is steeped in familial and religious traditions, manifesting a blend of Catholic faith and cultural practices. As dusk descends on 24th December, you would partake in a meatless feast, both to adhere to the traditional fast preceding the midnight mass, Pasterka, and to honour the spiritual preparation for Christmas.

Key Traditions:

  • Opłatek Sharing: The meal commences after sharing the opłatek, a Christmas wafer symbolic of unity and forgiveness.
  • Meatless Dishes: Your dining table typically boasts an array of vegetarian dishes. Per tradition, it includes twelve courses representing the twelve Apostles, or sometimes the turn of twelve months, ensuring a year of wealth and prosperity.
  • Hay Beneath Tablecloth: Some households still place hay under the tablecloth, a nod to the Christ Child’s manger and a reminder of your humble origins.

Central to Catholic tradition, you also maintain the practice of leaving one empty seat at the supper table. This is for the unexpected guest, reflecting your sense of community and hospitality. After the supper, your attention turns to Pasterka, the midnight mass, reinforcing your religious devotion and family bonds during this festive period.

In summary, Wigilia is not merely a Christmas Eve meal but a mosaic of your Polish heritage and Catholic observance, fostering togetherness and spiritual contemplation before the jubilance of Christmas day.

Polish Christmas Recipes

Starter Dishes: Soups and Salads

Polish Christmas salats and soups

Your Polish Christmas feast begins with a variety of starter dishes that set the tone for a traditional Wigilia dinner. These starters often include a warming soup, like the iconic red borscht, and salads that use ingredients such as herring and a range of vegetables dressed with sour cream or oil and vinegar.

Red Borscht with Uszka

The rich, crimson hue of Red Borscht is emblematic of Polish Christmas. This beetroot soup carries a balance of sweet and sour flavours and is typically accompanied by uszka, small dumplings often stuffed with wild mushrooms.

Enjoying this combination is like embracing centuries of Polish culinary tradition in one bowl.

Herring and Creamed Salads

Herring plays a starring role in Polish Christmas starters, often presented as Creamed Herring Salad. This dish is a medley of salty herring, onions, and apples smothered in a coat of velvety sour cream. Your taste buds are treated to a symphony of rich and comforting flavours, truly a festive indulgence.

Sałatka Jarzynowa (Polish Potato Salad) is a delightful mix of potatoes, carrots, peas, and pickled cucumbers, blended with creamy mayonnaise or oil dressing. It’s a refreshing counterpart to the protein-rich herring.

Mushroom and Vegetable Broths

For those who favour the earthy tones of the forest, a Mushroom Broth (Grzybowa) is ideal. It’s crafted from an aromatic vegetable stock infused with wild mushrooms, providing a deliciously warm embrace on a cold Christmas Eve.

Alternatively, a clear Vegetable Broth can be a light prelude to the coming feast. With a clear, savoury base containing potatoes, carrots, and a bouquet of other vegetables, each spoonful is simple yet brimming with the garden’s best.

Main Courses: The Centrepieces of Christmas

In traditional Polish Christmas Eve supper, known as Wigilia, the main courses are essential players. They not only showcase Poland’s culinary heritage but also adhere to the customary abstention from meat, making fish and vegetarian dishes the stars of the evening.

Fish-Based Delicacies

Fried Carp: Considered a classic Christmas Eve dish, this main course holds a place of honor among the 12 dishes typically served. Carp, known in Polish as “karp,” is traditionally prepared fried, providing a crispy yet tender texture that’s savoured by many.

  • Greek-Style Fish: Aptly named “Ryba po grecku,” despite not being of Greek origin, this dish consists of white fish fillets smothered in a rich vegetable sauce. It’s a colourful and flavourful part of the Wigilia table, often featuring carrots, onions, and celery in a tomato-based sauce.
  • Rolmopsy: These are roll-ups made of herring fillets, served cold and pickled, often filled with a variety of ingredients like pickles, onions, and a touch of spices, presenting a balance of tangy and savoury notes.

Vegetarian and Cabbage Dishes

  • Pierogi Z Kapustą I Grzybami: These dumplings filled with sauerkraut and mushrooms are a quintessential Polish dish. Not only do they represent the heartiness of Polish cuisine, but they also bring a delightful contrast with their soft pastry and rich filling.
  • Christmas Eve Gołąbki: Unlike the meat-filled “gołąbki” served throughout the year, the Christmas Eve versions, known as “kapusta z grochem,” are cabbage rolls stuffed with a mixture of peas and mushrooms, often seasoned with delicate spices to enhance the flavour.
  • Cabbage with Peas: A simple yet satisfying dish, this combines stewed cabbage with peas, providing a subtly sweet and earthy element to contrast the more robust flavours of the other main courses.

With these dishes, your Wigilia celebration will not only be steeped in tradition but will also offer a variety of tastes and textures, from the sea-fresh delicacies to the comforting embrace of cabbage and mushrooms.

Sides and Complementary Dishes

In a traditional Polish Christmas meal, sides are as significant as the main courses. They often come packed with an array of flavours from earthy mushrooms to the warm notes of nutmeg and cinnamon.

Salads and Cold Plates

Cold plates, such as salads, are a staple in your Polish Christmas spread. These dishes respect the customary fast, making them primarily vegetarian. A popular choice is the Polish Layered Herring Salad (Śledź pod Pierzynką), which layers herring with ingredients like carrots and mayonnaise-dressed potatoes, offering a refreshing counterpart to richer dishes.

Another cold favourite is the Oil and Vinegar-dressed Cabbage Salad. It’s a simple yet tasty dish that complements the main courses with its vinegary tang and crunchy texture. Be sure to season it with a touch of cloves and perhaps a sprinkle of parsley to enhance the flavour.

Warm Sides and Dumplings

Moving to the warm sides, you have the beloved Pierogi Z Kapustą (Pierogi with Sauerkraut and Mushrooms). Pierogi are traditional Polish dumplings, and this variety is filled with a hearty mixture of sauerkraut and wild mushrooms, seasoned with a hint of spices like nutmeg for that festive taste.

Don’t miss out on another favourite: Polish Sauerkraut with Peas. This warm dish pairs the fermented tang of sauerkraut with the sweetness of peas, all brought together with a drizzle of oil for richness.

On your tables, make room for dumplings beyond pierogi. Mini dumplings, often served in clear beetroot soup (barszcz), are stuffed with a mix of wild mushrooms, offering an explosion of flavour in a small package. These dumplings pay homage to the deep-rooted mushroom foraging traditions in Poland and bring an earthy, umami taste to your meal.

Desserts: Sweet Endings and Festive Treats

Sweet Polish winter deserts

During the Christmas season in Poland, your dessert table is adorned with a variety of sweets that reflect long-standing traditions. From baked treats infused with spices to fruit compotes that balance rich feasts, you’ll discover here how to end your festive meals with a touch of sweetness and tradition.

Baked Goods and Refined Sweets

Indulge in the festive flavours of Piernik, a Polish gingerbread that is often seen in the form of Pierniki or Pierniczki, mini gingerbread cookies. These biscuits are seasoned with a warming mix of spices and sometimes filled with fruit preserves. Typically, they’re decorated with icing, and they’re perfect for hanging on the Christmas tree.

Polish gingerbread pierniki

The renowned Polish Poppy Seed Roll, also known as Makowiec, is a delightful sweet bread roll laced with poppy seeds, honey, and raisins. Walnuts often feature in Makowiec, adding a hearty crunch. This roll is a Christmas staple, with poppy seeds symbolising prosperity.

Polish Christmas Makowiec

Kolaczki Cookies are another Christmas treat—a delicate, flaky pastry filled with a variety of sweet and slightly tangy fruit preserves. You can make your own fillings from apricots, raspberries, or even sweet cheese.

Sweet Description
Poppy Seeds A symbol of abundance, used in desserts like Makowiec.
Walnuts Often found in Makowiec, adding texture and flavour.
Honey Used to sweeten treats and adds a natural richness.

Fruit Compotes and Dessert Soups

Kompot is a must-have on your Christmas dessert list, a refreshingly simple beverage made from dried or fresh fruits such as apples, pears, and plums. It’s a light alternative served alongside more decadent desserts or as a palate cleanser. Simmer your choice of fruit with just enough sugar to sweeten and a touch of spices for an authentic Polish experience.

For a slightly thicker option, Dried Fruit Compote is a traditional dessert soup, simmered with a mixture of fruits like apples, apricots, and raisins. It can serve as a sweet conclusion to your meal and is especially comforting during the cold weather of Christmas time.

Remember: When preparing these sweets and compotes, you’re not just following a recipe – you’re partaking in a celebration of Polish culture and history that brings loved ones together during the festive season.

  • Kompot: A mix of simmered fruits, subtly sweetened and sometimes spiced.
  • Dried Fruit Compote: A thicker stew of various fruits, perfect as a dessert on its own.

Beverages: Traditional Drinks of Polish Christmas

Traditional Polish kompot

During the festive season, you might find yourself intrigued by the heartwarming array of traditional Polish Christmas beverages. Kompot, a sweet concoction typically made from dried fruits, is a quintessential drink gracing Polish Christmas tables.



  • Dried prunes
  • Dried apples
  • Dried pears
  • Dried apricots
  • Raisins
  • Optional: a fresh orange


To prepare this delightful drink, simply simmer the mixture of fruits in water until the flavours meld into a sweet, aromatic brew. Serving it cold adds a refreshing contrast to the rich holiday dishes.

Kwas Chlebowy (Kvass)


  • Origin: Slavic
  • Base: Fermented dark rye bread
  • Taste: Unique, slightly tangy

This fermented beverage, made from dark rye bread, holds roots in medieval Eastern Europe and has maintained its popularity in Polish tradition, particularly during Christmas.

While Kompot and Kvass serve as drinks, they beautifully complement an array of Polish Christmas foods. They are not merely beverages but integral components of the broader culinary experience, adding balance and variety to the taste and texture of Christmas dishes.

As you immerse yourself in the flavours of a Polish Christmas, these traditional drinks offer a taste of Polish heritage, each sip reminiscent of centuries-old customs and the joy of festive celebrations.

Traditions and Customs: Beyond the Christmas Table

In Poland, the fabric of Christmas Eve is woven with an array of traditions transcending culinary customs. When you participate in a Polish Christmas Eve, known locally as Wigilia, you’re engaging in a night filled with symbolism and family warmth.

As you wait for the Christmas Star to appear in the sky, marking the commencement of the evening feast, you’re invited to share a piece of Opłatek—a thin, unleavened wafer. This act is more than a ritual; it’s a heartfelt exchange of wishes for health and happiness among loved ones.

Beyond the feast, your experience is enveloped in the gentle glow of the Christmas tree, an echo of the deep reverence of the season. The tree, often adorned with apples, nuts, and handmade decorations, stands as a silent witness to familial joy and togetherness.

Here is a snapshot of some key customs:

  • Sharing Opłatek: A symbol of unity and peace among family and friends.
  • First Star Gazing: The sighting signals the beginning of the meal, honouring the Star of Bethlehem.
  • Christmas Tree Decorations: Reflects a blend of Christian symbolism and local folk culture.

Post feasting, leftovers take on a significance of their own. No part of the Christmas meal is wasted, reflecting a respect for the bounty and a practical nod to frugality. These remaining morsels are often shared, continuing the theme of generosity that flavours the Polish Christmas experience.

As you immerse yourself in these traditions, remember that Polish Christmas customs are a tapestry that extends beyond the laden tables to the very essence of seasonal spirit and community.

Read also:

Young people Polish christmas dinner celebration

Planning and Preparation: Tips for an Authentic Wigilia

When preparing your Wigilia, the traditional Polish Christmas Eve supper, it’s essential to understand the symbolism behind the feast. Each dish carries a meaning, often associated with wealth and prosperity for the year to come. You’ll need to plan carefully to create an authentic experience.

Polish barszcz

Firstly, make a list of quintessential Polish Christmas foods. Your spread should include:

  • Barszcz: A clear beetroot soup with mushroom-filled dumplings known as uszka, signifying purity.
  • Carp: The centrepiece fish dish, symbolising wealth, typically served fried or in jelly.
  • Kutia: A sweet grain dish made with wheat berries, honey, and nuts, denoting a bountiful harvest.

Ensure you have an odd number of dishes, traditionally either seven, nine or eleven, to signify abundance.

Next, source your ingredients from specialty stores to maintain authenticity. Polish cuisine relies heavily on fresh produce and specific regional spices. For a successful Wigilia, authenticity lies in the details – from the earthy wild mushrooms for your uszka to the poppy seeds for the dessert.

Have a go at making dishes ahead of time. Many Polish recipes can be time-consuming, so preparing in advance will ease your Wigilia preparations.

Remember to set an extra place at the table, a heartwarming Polish tradition inviting unexpected guests or remembering departed loved ones. It embodies the spirit of hospitality and remembrance during the festive season.

To conclude, curating your Wigilia with respect for Polish customs and a focus on traditional recipes will bring a touch of Polish prosperity and warmth to your Christmas celebrations.

Frequently Asked Questions

Dishes served during Wigilia in Poland

In this section, you’ll find concise answers about traditional Polish Christmas recipes that are integral to the celebration of Wigilia, the Christmas Eve dinner in Poland.

What are the customary dishes served during Wigilia in Poland?

During Wigilia, the traditional Polish Christmas Eve, you are likely to see a variety of dishes including soups like Barszcz Czerwony (beetroot soup) often served with Uszka (mushroom-filled dumplings), as well as fish, pierogi, and other unique Polish specialties.

Can you list the 12 traditional dishes typically served at a Polish Christmas Eve dinner?

Yes, the 12 traditional dishes might include Barszcz Czerwony, Fried Carp, Pierogi with Sauerkraut and Mushrooms, Rolled Herring, Sauerkraut with Mushrooms, Creamed Herring Salad, Cabbage with Peas, and Makowiec among others. Each dish has its own place in the feast and contributes to the vast variety on the Polish Christmas table.

Which fish dish is most commonly prepared for Christmas dinner in Poland?

The most common fish dish for Christmas in Poland is often Fried Carp, which holds a cherished spot in the array of Wigilia dishes, reflecting the rich culinary traditions of Polish heritage.

What desserts hold a special place in traditional Polish Christmas celebrations?

Desserts such as Makowiec, a poppy seed roll, and Piernik, a type of gingerbread that is prepared weeks in advance to mature, are beloved choices during Polish Christmas. They represent the sweet culmination of the feast.

How do Poles traditionally celebrate Christmas Eve, and what foods are involved?

Poles traditionally celebrate Christmas Eve with a family dinner called Wigilia which starts after the first star is seen in the sky. It is an intimate family gathering that involves sharing a wafer and enjoying the 12 traditional dishes, symbolising abundance and the 12 apostles.

What significance do the 12 dishes of Christmas hold in Polish customs?

The 12 dishes served during Polish Christmas Eve symbolise various aspects of Christian faith, including the 12 apostles. This custom is deeply ingrained in tradition, embodying the spirit of Polish hospitality and the importance of the holiday season.


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